LED lighting designer must see: parametric design of natural lighting

As people's energy consumption and building environment requirements continue to increase, the design of the building's exterior, structure, lighting, and HVAC systems are no longer independent of each other. The trend toward Integrated Design requires architects, urban planners, environmental engineers, structural engineers, lighting designers, and HVAC engineers to work together at the initial stages of design to explore building energy consumption and the environment. Integrity.

The Architectural Engineering Institute has listed the comprehensive design of the building as an important focus for the annual Professional Project Award, and in the annual Student Design Competition, the Integrated Design Award (Integration) was established. Award) to encourage the comprehensive design of the building.

The concept of integrated design The most important thing for architectural lighting design is the design of natural lighting. The design of natural lighting not only affects the quality of lighting, but also has an important impact on the energy consumption of the HVAC system of the building, and the design of the two is affected by the climate of the city where the building is located, so the same design method cannot be used. For example, in Nanjing, China, the summer is hot, how to reduce the sun and air conditioning load through reasonable wall or window design, but at the same time reduce the energy consumption of electric lighting by increasing the amount of sunlight entering the indoor space. Therefore, it is especially important for lighting designers to properly design natural daylighting systems to achieve balanced optimization of lighting and HVAC energy consumption.

For lighting designers, it is more common to introduce building models into lighting simulation software (eg Dialux or Agi32) to simulate the effect of natural daylighting on spatial illuminance or brightness levels and distribution at a particular point in time, and then pass The calculation of several time points is used to evaluate the quality of natural light in the analysis space.

Such a simulation analysis :

1. It is impossible to comprehensively evaluate the quality of natural lighting in space from the perspective of the whole year;

2, for many parameters (such as the size of the horizontal visor, window size, glass transmittance), etc., mostly rely on experience to design, and the modification of parameters and dimensions will lead to complex model modifications and repeated simulation calculations;

3. The lighting and the energy consumption of the HVAC system are completely separated. It is difficult for lighting designers and HVAC engineers to achieve the balance and optimization of lighting and HVAC through efficient cooperation.

Figure 1: The overall process using parametric design (Source: Smith Group)

With the continuous development of computer technology, lighting designers and HVAC engineers can work with architects and structural engineers through parametric modeling and rationally integrate lighting simulation calculations and building energy calculation models to make lighting and HVAC energy consumption To the best optimization. The whole design process is actually a parametric modeling, simulation calculation of various combinations, analysis and comparison of various designs, selection of the optimal design process (as shown in Figure 1).

Parametric model: The parameters of the building model are no longer fixed, and the entire building is defined by defining the range and relationship of each parameter (building orientation, material reflectivity, window size, wall thickness, window and wall heat transfer rate, etc.) The model is built.

Defining evaluation indicators: According to customer requirements or design concepts, each evaluation index affected by building parameters is defined in simulation software, such as average illuminance, indicators for measuring natural lighting quality throughout the year (DA, cDA, UDI, sDA), air conditioning refrigeration load , air conditioning heating load, direct sunlight depth in space, electrical lighting, etc.

Figure 2: Changes in evaluation indicators caused by changes in design parameters (Source: Mostapha Roudsari)

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