The effect of different material wires on sound quality

[Home Theater Network HDAV.com.cn] The film "Infernal Affairs" Andy Lau and Tony Leung's appearance, in a retro-style audio store. Liu Dehua auditioned the amplifier, and Liang Chaowei recommended a Hong Kong-made amplifier with a Hong Kong-made audio cable. The performance is comparable to the "100,000 European goods". The voice is "high-pitched sweet, medium-pitched, and pure bass. In short, in a word, it is through". The two sat side by side, the picture calmed down, the air was solidified, and Tsai Chin's "Forgotten Time" faintly sounded in the pale yellow picture. Then Andy Lau himself selected a wire, "listen to old music, this is better." Singing again, "Sure enough."

Wire (mainly referred to as audio wiring) also has an impact on the performance of sound quality, and the wires made of different materials may have different hearing. The sound from the front end (such as the player, the amplifier) ​​to the various parts of the wire is a part of the sound quality, so enthusiasts can pursue it without hesitation, precisely because the wire is like the building blocks of childhood can be ever-changing. In addition to the audio replacement wire, in fact, the earphone earplugs that we usually touch the most can also be replaced with wires. At present, many brands of high-end earphone earphones are designed with replaceable wires. Such as the classic moving iron ER4 series, Shure's SE530, UE TF10 and other such original design with interchangeable wire to meet the fun of lovers, so that the sound quality is full of changes. Friends who have strong hands-on ability can also try to change the wire for their own equipment. Maybe ordinary equipment can change the face and make you pleasantly surprised.

However, if you don't understand the wire, the original equipment will become bad after it is replaced. What kind of sound will there be? What is the sound of this material? This is an audio knowledge collection that simply popularizes wire materials of different materials.

First, copper material

In terms of types, copper, silver and various alloys are commonly used in the production of audio wires, and wires made of nickel, tantalum and carbon are often seen.

Copper is our most commonly used wire conductive material. According to the national standard, the purity of copper (made of copper for wire) must be greater than 99.7%, and the resistivity should be less than 17.24n, when tinned and silver-plated wires change. Another common definition of purity is "N". People who just played the line often hear that this is a few N lines. In fact, N is an abbreviation of the English word "NINE". The 4N line we often hear is that the material purity of the line is 99.99%, and the purity of 6N is 99.9999%. From the perspective of the audio wire, the general 4N line is enough. However, it should be pointed out here that N is only a convention in the industry, there is no specific international standard, and there is no clear industry standard. Therefore, the 6N lines produced by some factories may not be as good as the 4N lines of some factories.

TPC: Electrolytic copper is the raw material we commonly make copper materials.

OFC: Oxygen-free copper, which removes some oxygen molecules and impurities in electrolytic copper. The purity is generally around 99.99%, which is the minimum standard for audio cables. It is also known as 4N copper.

Hi-OFC: High-conductivity oxygen-free copper, by further removing copper oxides and removing other magazines, the purity of copper is increased to over 99.99%, while processing and heat treatment, try to make the crystal lattice of atoms in each grain Try to be consistent and improve conductivity.

LC-OFC: The grain growth of high-conductivity oxygen-free copper is increased by mechanical processing and heat treatment to reduce signal distortion caused by the grain boundary of the wire.

PCOCC: single crystal oxygen-free copper. When smelting copper, the crystal growth of copper is elongated by the method of directional growth and rapid solidification. The longest can reach more than 100 meters, the grain boundary in the wire disappears, and the crystal is eliminated. The effect of boundaries and oxides on signal distortion.

PSC: Solid smooth copper: Due to the non-smooth surface of the copper wire and the surface oxidation impurities in the wire drawing process, the smoothness of signal transmission, especially high frequency signals, is affected. Due to the skin effect, high-frequency signals are transmitted only on the surface, and the unsmooth and unclean surfaces make the high-frequency signal transmission poor and distorted (just like a car driving on a pothole). PSC is to polish and remove surface impurities on the basis of PCOCC.

Second, silver materials

Silver is also our commonly used wire conductive material. Because silver is more expensive, it is generally only used as a surface material, so that the low frequency is carried out from the center copper wire, and the high frequency is carried out from the surface silver layer.

The conductivity of silver is slightly better than that of copper, but since the resistivity is slightly lower, that is, the conductivity is higher, the skin effect is slightly more obvious than that of copper, but why is silver used in high-frequency wires? Because the chemical properties of silver are more stable than copper, it The surface is not easily oxidized, so its high-frequency transmission performance is better than that of copper. In high-frequency lines, such as video lines, digital signal levels are used as surface layer materials. Of course, some high-grade wires are generally made of pure silver materials. The first is better conductivity, and secondly, it has better commercial value as a high-end line.

Silver materials also have different purity and grades of OFS, HI-OFS, PCOSC, and PSS.

Third, copper alloy

Copper alloy, which is a kind of wire conductor material that is not commonly used, commonly known as brass. The main components are copper, silver and zinc alloys. A material that is now popular in high-end wire.

The tone of copper alloy is very different from the traditional copper wire. It is suitable for some equipments. It is very inappropriate for some equipments. It can also be said to be a very flexible line material. Since the copper alloy resistance is an order of magnitude larger than that of copper, its skin effect is less pronounced than copper, and its high frequency transmission and low frequency transmission are more consistent. At the same time, its oxidation resistance is better than copper, and its surface is more conducive to high frequency transmission. The disadvantages are also obvious. Its high resistivity and long-distance transmission loss are too high. It is not suitable for professional applications that require long-distance transmission. At the same time, because the high-frequency and low-frequency transmission characteristics are different from copper, the system that is easy to cause the normal copper wire to be balanced and balanced will have a new imbalance after using the copper alloy material, so its usability has certain limitations, usually manifested as The treble is bright.

Fourth, carbon fiber

Carbon fiber, in the past, carbon fiber conductors are mainly used in some high input impedance instruments and medical equipment. There are still relatively few materials used for audio product wires.

Carbon fiber is excellent in anti-aging, anti-oxidation and tensile strength. Its internal resistance is about three orders of magnitude higher than that of copper wire, and its diameter is generally several, so its skin effect is not obvious. The carbon fiber determined by the above characteristics is very suitable for high-frequency signal transmission, but its shortcomings are also very obvious. Its internal resistance is very high. The internal resistance of a 1-meter long signal line is generally several hundred ohms, while the copper wire of the same size is only A few ohms or less, it is extremely unsuitable for equipment with low input impedance, causing signal attenuation and dynamic compression. It is also not suitable for high current applications. VDH's third speaker cable consisting of more than 3 million carbon fibers has an impedance of up to 70 ohms per meter, which is already higher than the general signal line resistance. The common speaker cable is 3 meters long. The 0.2 × 2 resistance has exceeded the internal resistance of the speaker in the speaker divider, even exceeding one tenth of the internal resistance of the speaker. The severely reduced damping coefficient is very unfavorable for low impedance and low frequency of the large speaker box, not to mention the long distance. In the professional case of transmission, its finished wire manufacturing and copper wire process are also different. More fresh and fun home theater information, please pay attention to home theater network http:// (WeChat: cnhifi), the country's most influential home theater audio player interactive media website.

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